THE WAR CRY of the KAZAKHS Y-yyR !..YAHOO!- And YRA URAn
Let the war cries be Kok bori - gray wolf . ( Legend about Oguz-kagane, XIII c. The Manuscript of the epic content, is a single list, having written by uigur letter. It Is kept in the National library in Paris)
The majority kazakh tribes, alongside with the generic tamgoj, there is their own war cry - uran. Today the majority of cries are known in only narrow circle of the people, leading its family from one ancestor and presenting one concrete sort. But not infrequent events, when one tamgoj and one general uranus are used in several sorts, considering itself descendant of one distant ancestor. Such uranuses we could possibly name usual or standard. But in kazakh history there were unusual uranuses, possible say, great uranuses, as, for instance, national war cry - Alash. Also the uranuses of the three dgyzes Senior dgyze, Average dgyze and Younger dgyze, accordingly: Bahtiyar, Akzhol were very important too.
For ordinary steppe person the role of the last uranuses were more important than their own generic Uranus. Because they helped him in heavy minute to feel the unity not only with their own close relative, but also with the hole folk that could to inspire him on completion unprecedented feat. But it is necessary to note that in the steppe, notwithstanding established stereotype, there wasn’t continuous armed collisions with foreigners, when Kazakhs of the three dguzes had to gather under the banner or they had to go on the all folks banner. That's why the demands of great uranus was not an ordinary phenomena. Grate wars were extreme phenomena in Kazakh steppe. Invasion of dzyngar - sooner exception, than a rule. Additionally it happened in the epoch of the sundown Kazakh khanate and its disinteration on three isolated, firm, rival for influence tribal alliance. That fact proves that Younger dguze nearly did not damage from the invasion of dzyngar, the Average dguze was touched partly while the main blow of dzungar horde was on the Senior dguze, the maximum damage has accrued to kazakhs, having nomaded to the south of the country. The occupation of the Semirechiya and extensive territory integer three decennial events lasted along Karatauskih mountains, and this can witness that fact, what efforts hereon were needed for exorcising invaders.
If stop more detail on thequestion of the strategies of conduct of the greater wars nomad, that it is necessary to note that here, on the first plan is the question about the concrete person in the society. A real leader had to appear in the sphere of such nomads, who could unite the folk with all available facility and methods. Vozhak- the leader, capable to unite all in one powerful fist. But do this in nomadic ambience was always archidifficult because of multiple tribes, where conservative adjusted old people lead, they were always hostile and adjusted to any encroachment on their power. The Chieftain like Mode, Kulitegin, CHingishan or Tamerlan were born after all not so often. Аnd during the long epochs of social stagnation, when in steppe weather conditions were normal conduct a facilities, nomads, according to its ingenuous nature, were rather inert and preferred to lead the idle lifestyle. This noted nearly all travelers of the middle ages. While pull the kumiss, they do not take care of the other food (Giliom de Rubruk, Journey in the east countries , XIII c.).
But you haven’t to think that kazakhs in general sat pack; fold hands. Nomad, probably, as no one else understood that large military marches require the greater expenses and melt in itself greater dangers, why he shown a preference wide-spread, accustomed barimte- driving away of the horses beside their own neighbors. Beside from theft of the live-stock, they often left to steal young girls and womans, that saved from onerous charge kalim, also they did not abhor to rob the caravans. All this, certainly, did not promote the rapprochement disembodied the tribes and united the folk, and, finally, that brought to the fact that great uranuses gradually completely passed out of use.
One word, the peak of great uranus, arisen on the daybreak of formations of the nomadic communes, and it was greatly claimed in epoch flight of the bloom and unprecedented might of nomads, sacks, hynnas, hun, and turks of Golden Horde, when some war cries collected under the one banner group of ten, hundreds or thousands armed rider. Probably, in that time Alash – the general Kazakh cry arose. After disintegration of the empires of CHingishana, the role of great combat cries became steadily to fall and slowly descend on no. The Prime cause of that, were the appearance in the steppe big amount of weak rulers, hurried to separate the powerful state on separate inherited estate. And than more their became, that deeper they sank in fight for the power. All these endless internal conflicts and stripping could not promote to prosperity and to incensement the military earthy remains nomad. Large tribal alliances become to be split asunder and go from one khan or sultan to the other. Exactly in such , social stagnation in the second half XV c, discontented sultans Kerey and ZHanibek took away from khan Abulhayyra part of his subordinated, which have later formed the skeleton of future Kazakh khanate. Herewith, in the places of their former displacement remained much their fellow-tribesman with the same generic tamgami and the same uranuses. After one hundred years in this different tribes composition which had gone to nomad, was infused big group of mangits (their descendant are a present-day nogaizi). They also had their own tamgi and uranuses. Thence birth appeared in composition many turkic folk with alike names and similar tamgami. In this epoch of the decay and hardly could appear new, significant for majority, war cries. It Is Thought, then nomad happened to more to use social stagnation their own generic uranus or some call, temporarily substituting former.
Let's stop more detail on the question of the usage by nomads their own uranus. The manuscript Baburname had gone to our days, written by great-grandson most Tamerlana ruler Samarkanda emir Baburom. there are such curious lines: Khan and one, stood near it, have too turned the person to banner and have splashed the kumiss on it. And then and there copper pipes roared, beated drums, but warriors built in the narrow row become aloud repeat the war cry. From the whole this unconcealed noise rose around, which soon died down. All this was repeated thrice whereupon leaders saddled their own horses and have thrice detoured the figure.
It follows that urans whooped many times during the review of the troops before entering in march. Such is singular medieval three-time Yra! . It Is Thought that uranuses were whooped and before beginning of the battle directly, when the opposite sides were formed up in the tightening order face to face.
But they enter in battle in the other way, with a long voices shouted yra-a-a. That means russian direct meaning- fighting. From this take the root famous Russian- Slavonic yahoo, yra. Later approaching on the enemy warriors began to yell Yr-r-r, and then when they were in the rows of the bristle enemy they yelled long a-a-a. From merging of these two slabs, nowadays we have got accustomed for each inhabitant yahoo(yra). Probably follows to say that the root of the turkh word “uran” was “ur” in the meaning of fighting. Notable that russian Yahoo! Has already had time to deeply engrain in consciousness of the present-day Kazakhs. This has occurred after wreckage large tribal alliance, smashing strong nomadic community, their great uranuses came on the back plan or they were completely dedicated to oblivion. In this situations role of the usual generic combat cries left on the foreground and became much significant. Certainly, when in absolute darkness rakish dgigits hijacked herds of horses from their neighbors, they tried to keep the languages for teeth, but shortly before that, when they only were going to emerge on barimty, they invigorate themselves with crying their generic uranuses. The War cries were also pronounced during miscellaneous of the sort meeting. For instance, during the big toy or trizgni, made descendant of some large lord or grown up. Horse racing-bejge or kok-par – horse hew. On such gathering settled down and the other competitions like kyres- fights, or kiz-kiy – overtake girl. Quite often there was a competition between gluttons, who will more drink the kumiss or eat meat. And, certainly, during these competitions and gays, moral spirit of the competitors was supported by loud cries, but still better, cry of the generic uranus.
In termination want to bring rarely event, the usage of not generic uranus, by steppe person, but the war cry, having thought in a heavy hour himself to himself. This will help to throw light upon that, as in ambience of nomads one uranuses were replaced others. This unusual fact saved in the legend about great kazakh khan Abylae. As it is known, Abylay khan at birth was adverbial with other name Abilimansur. Such happened that his native were sliced by sarty (now their is accepted to name the uzbek) and he, being then nine years, miraculously saved from the hands of the villains, turned out to be in Kazakh steppe. There for a long time he had to forget about its noble origin and be hired by farm worker to famous beat Senior dguze Tole bi. In that time his name was Sabalak. Shaggy, lousy dog. With this contemptuous moniker future khan went to march ordinary militiaman against hateful dgyngars. In the first fight Sabalak solves to take call from well known leader, chopped off heads not only of one kazakh, he was dgyngars nojon- SHarysh-бахадура. To surprise of his fellow-tribesmen, before entering in single combat he pronounces not one of the multiple generic uranus, but absolutely other word,nobody unheard-of - Abylay! . With this war cries he miraculously manages to strike down the worldly-wise warrior, and when after bloode battle, made by kazakhs on their greate enemy, then they searched him and ask whence beside it this uranus, Sabalak confesses, who he indeed. But uranus Abylay he has taken itself in memory about his grandparent, who had nicknamed by sarty as relentless Khanisher Abylay - Bloodsucker Abylay. The Relatives will acknowledge his as their sultan and since that time most people begin to call Abilmansyr as Abilay. . So once upon a time name changed in uranus, but uranus was transformed into name. The Truth, history keeps silent, if Abylay khan used his unusual war cries before the end of the lifes or then after some times, he had solved to change his name on primordial uranus tore-chingizids- Arhar. But it isn’t so important now, the main thing is that uranuses could easily disappear, yielding place new,, as this has occurred once upon a time in the steppe with contemptible shepherd Sabalak...